In 1940, when India entered World War II, Montessori and her son were interned as enemy aliens in India, Maria was allowed to conduct training courses. Sixteen courses were conducted during this time, creating a very strong base for her Cosmic Education here.
She also had her own school in Kodaikanal for this duration. In 1947, she went back to Europe for a brief period. Montessori returned to India for a second time the same year to conduct a few more courses in Kodaikanal, Chennai, Pune, Ahmedabad and Karachi.
The Montessoris then returned to Europe, leaving A.M. Joosten as their representative in India. To create an official structure for Joosten’s work, an organisation was created by the name of Indian Montessori Training Courses (IMTC) in 1949. It was an organisation consisting mainly of Joosten and Swamy. This travelling institution moved from city to city until Swamy’s retirement in 1990.